Clinical SurgeryQuestion Bank

Breast Cancer : Clinical Presentation and Genetics

Breast Cancer : Clinical Presentation and Genetics

#11 What is the relationship between body mass index (obesity) and breast cancer ?

Answer :

Obesity is associated with higher serum concentrations of estrogen and an increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women

Obesity is often associated with longer menstrual cycles and increased anovulatory cycles in premenopausal women, resulting in less total estrogen exposure and a lower risk of breast cancer.


#12 What is the relationship between exercise and breast cancer risk ?

Answer :

Increased activity levels among postmenopausal women reduces the risk of breast cancer, due to the reduction in BMI and the reduced serum estrogen levels associated with exercise


#13 What is the risk of breast cancer in women who consume alcohol ?

Answer :

Breast cancer risk is higher among women who consume moderate to high levels of alcohol

The risk of breast cancer increases linearly with cumulative lifetime alcohol intake, which, in turn, is associated with increased endogenous estrogen levels.


#14 What is the strongest environmental risk factor for breast cancer ?

Answer :

Exposure to ionizing radiation to the chest, especially in prepubertal and pubertal years


#15 How do you classify benign breast disease ?

Answer :

Proliferative lesions

Nonproliferative lesions


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