Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Laboratory Reference Ranges

Laboratory Reference Range

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

It is a set of values that includes upper and lower limits of a lab test based on a group of otherwise healthy people.

The values in between those limits may depend on such factors as age, sex, and specimen type (blood, urine, spinal fluid, etc.)

Values within the reference range (WRR) are those within normal limits (WNL). The limits are called the upper reference limit (URL) or upper limit of normal (ULN) and the lower reference limit (LRL) or lower limit of normal (LLN).

The following are the lower limit of normal (LLN) and upper limit of normal (ULN) for different laboratory parameters extending from pages 1 – 13. All laboratory parameters are represented in this post, so ensure you go through all the pages to find the reference range of your interest.

Electrolytes                                              LLN                               ULN                    Comments


Ammonia                                                   15                                  50 µmol/L      


Ceruloplasmin                                           15                                   60 mg/dL


Chloride                                                     95                                  105 mmol/L


Copper                                                       70                                  150 µg/dL


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